Our suite of editing and translation services supports academics who are striving to create clear and polished prose. For Anglophone writers and publishers, we help at every phase of development, from shaping argument and structure to polishing language and style. We also work with European and Asian scholars to make their research accessible and desirable to North American and British academic audiences and publishers, including journals and presses. Our languages for translation include Italian, French, German, Latin.
- high-level developmental editing for argument and structure
- language editing for fluidity and lucidity
- copyediting and citation formatting for accuracy and style
- index and bibliography creation (click here for some indexing pointers)
- elegant and precise translation, specializing in Italian, French, German and Latin, and in both historical and contemporary texts
- academic writing in Italian, French, and German
Levels of Editing
Developmental editing involves working with a text for structure, consistency and persuasiveness of the argument, rhetorical effectiveness, and logical force of the evidence. It can be undertaken with texts at any stage, from early drafts to complete manuscripts. One version of developmental editing is working with revise and resubmits, whether for books or articles. We take peer reviewer comments and propose where and how they can be addressed in the text, as well as helping authors prepare their communications with editors.
Line editing is careful and close reading of text for consistency of style, fluidity of language, and accuracy of grammar. It is most often of use to scholars for whom English is not their first language, but any author can benefit from such refined polishing of a text.
Copy editing captures errors of grammar, spelling and punctuation as well as formatting citations. Less concerned with fluidity and style (unlike line editing), it puts a laser focus on the consistency of the text with regard to its style guide. The most frequently used style guide is the Chicago Manual of Style, but we work routinely with all of the major styles, as well as individual publishers’ house requirements.
Proofreading takes place at the very last stage of manuscript preparation, once a final manuscript has been typeset and laid out by a press. It catches the tiny typographical mistakes that inevitably remain in a printer’s proof and examines formatting and layout issues throughout the text, including in the table of contents, running heads, chapter headings, section breaks, front and back matter. It is the last step in ensuring a polished manuscript.
Lisa has helped me to take my decades of research and thousands of pages of research notes and write them up into prose that people want to read. Since I started working with her, I have transformed ideas and insights into published articles. She excels at ploughing through my early drafts and identifying compelling narrative lines, and she makes suggestions that improve idea sequencing. She is particularly good at making sure that I underscore my contributions to analysis, whereas in the past, I downplayed them. As a result of this, Lisa fills me with confidence. She helps me focus on the process (writing, analyzing, structuring), so that the goals (published pieces of high-quality academic writing) take care of themselves.
– Professor of Medieval Art History.